Who Was Julius Caesar?
Many have heard the name before, or maybe just know about the dressing. However, who was Julius Caesar actually, and why is he so well-known? Well, there are a couple of different reasons for that. The history of Julius Caesar is captivating. Keep reading to find out the most fascinating Julius Caesar history.
Julius Caesar was born on July 12 or 13 in Rome, Italy, 100 B.C.E, and passed away there in March of 44 B.C.E (National Geographic Society, 2022). He was a renowned Roman commander and politician, the ruler of Gaul, the winner of the civil war of 49–45 B.C.E. and the tyrant (46–44 B.C.E.) who enacted several changes in politics and society. Caesar made a dramatic and permanent impact on the path of Greco-Roman history. Most of the titles of the great individuals of the Greco-Roman society have little meaning to the average informed individual today because the community has been dead for centuries. He reigned less than a year before he was disreputably slain in 44 B.C.E. by opposing politicians. Julius Caesar was a sly Roman commander and statesman, the ruler of the Roman Empire. The former commander ascended through the hierarchy of the Roman Empire before announcing his rule as dictator for life and upending Rome altogether.
DID YOU KNOW?
Julius Caesar reigned less than a year before he was disreputably slain in 44 B.C.E. by opposing politicians.
Throughout his eight-year administrative occupancy, Caesar reinforced his political valor and, more significantly, collected the loot from Gaul. He utilized this wealth to back his military. He pushed them through the Rubicon River, migrating from Gaul into Italy after his adversaries in Rome sought his reappearance as a private person. The Christian world is also associated with Caesar’s clan name, Julius (Iulius), as it was during Caesar’s reign that the Roman calendar month Quintilis, in which he was conceived, was rechristened “July” in his remembrance. Both this nickname and Caesar’s datebook transformation have endured. The outmoded Roman almanac was skewed and used for partisan purposes. In the Eastern Orthodox Christian nations, Caesar’s datebook, the Julian calendar, is still in practice in part. Pope Gregory made a few modest adjustments to the Julian timeline, which is currently in use in the West.
Facts About Julius Caesar
A co-conspirator, Decimus Brutus, was Caesar’s second heir in his will.
Caesar banned driving carriages on city streets during the first ten hours of daylight.
Julius Caesar had a son with Cleopatra named Caesarion, or “little Caesar”.
Caesar was stabbed many times during his murder but the physician Antistius determined that only one stab wound was fatal.
Caesar originally named the giraffe “camelopard” since it resembled a camel and a leopard.
Caesar was the father of leap year.
Caesar was the first Roman to make a coin in his image.
Caesar was adored by the people & left them in his will.
Julius Caesar ignited a violent civil war.
Over 60 people were involved in Caesar’s assassination.
Julius Caesar’s death marked the end of the republic.
Caesar was the first Roman to become deified.
Early Life of Julius Caesar
Caesar came from the highly patrician Julii family, whose ancestry may be traced back to the city’s founding. Subsequently, he asserted that he was a direct descendant of Venus’ son Aeneas and, hence, descended from the gods. Caesar was nurtured among the lower ranks of Roman citizens in the city’s public housing. His house was an insular, which in today’s society is comparable to a residential complex. This undoubtedly hindered any future political aspirations, even for a noble family with dire financial problems. His father’s passing when Caesar was age 15, in 85 B.C.E. was the latter and ostensibly less significant of the two occasions. While he undoubtedly participated in his young son’s life, as was typical of patrician households, he was frequently absent on military and senatorial duties. Before passing away, his father had ascended to the position of praetor, which is the position immediately beneath consul. By doing so, he at least contributed to preparing the way for the Caesar dynasty to reclaim its position of supremacy.
His mother, Aurelia Cotta, was descended from a prominent family that had given birth to many consuls. The Gaulish orator and classicist Marcus Antonius Gnipho instructed Caesar. Julia Major and Julia Minor were Caesar’s two elder sisters. Nothing much about Caesar’s early life is known. His histories by Suetonius and Plutarch start abruptly in Caesar’s adolescence, and their first few sentences seem to need to be found. It is impossible to gauge the effect this might have had because so little is known about Gaius Julius Caesar’s life. These incidents, combined with Rome’s history, must have played a significant part in the growth of the young man. All Rome appeared to know from his infancy through his early formative years was sociopolitical unpredictability, violence and worry about the future.
DID YOU KNOW?
Caesar's mother, Aurelia Cotta, was descended from a prominent family that had given birth to many consuls.
Family Background and Career Of Julius Caesar
Caesar officially embraced the radical side in 84 B.C.E. when he wed Cornelia, a noblewoman, and Marius’ fellow revolutionary. Cornelia was the child of Lucius Cornelius Cinna. Having just arrived in Italy from the East, Lucius Cornelius Sulla led an efficacious assault in 83–82 B.C.E. Sulla subsequently ordered the divorce of Cornelia and Caesar. As a result of Caesar’s rejection, he nearly lost his life and wealth (such as they were). He concluded that it would be preferable to depart from Italy and join the army, initially in the sphere of Asia and afterward in Cilicia.
An initial phase of the cursus honorum of Roman politics, he was appointed military tribune upon his return to Rome. Around this time (73–71 B.C.E.), Spartacus waged war, but it is unclear whether Caesar played any part in it. He was chosen to serve as quaestor in 69 B.C.E. Throughout that time, he presented a eulogy for Julia, his aunt, the dowager of Marius, and he also shared during the funeral procession pictures of Marius that had not been seen since the reign of Sulla. That same year, his wife Cornelia also passed away. When Metellus Nepos, then tribune, proposed contentious legislation in remembrance of Pompey and his troops suppressing the escalating unrest in Italy in 62 B.C.E., Caesar, then praetor, backed him. The two, nevertheless, were so adamant about their ideas that the Senate removed them from office. Caesar tried to carry out his obligations and bowed out when conflict was imminent. After he suppressed public protests in his favor, he convinced the House to restore him.
Julius was chosen to lead Hispania Ulterior following his praetorship, but he was still deeply in liability and required to pay off his lenders before he would depart. One of Rome’s wealthiest men, Marcus Licinius Crassus, caught his attention. Crassus remunerated some of Caesar’s arrears and served as a surety for others in exchange for partisan backing in his disapproval of Pompey’s objectives. Before the praetorship ended, Caesar left for his province, but he did so to circumvent becoming a sequestered citizen and facing legal action from his creditors. He overcame the Callaici and Lusitani in Hispania, earning the title of imperator from his soldiers. He also changed the rule surrounding loans and ended his administration in high regard.
Major Accomplishments of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar accomplished a lot during his lifetime. Many of Julius Caesar’s accomplishments took place while he was serving as the leader of the Roman Republic.
Julius Caesar rose through the ranks to become Consul of Rome in 59 BC.
He was the most powerful man in Rome.
His greatest military achievement is considered his conquest of Gaul.
Julius Caesar is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
His most famous reform is the introduction of the Julian calendar.
The ancient cities of Carthage and Corinth were rebuilt on his orders.
He initiated the integration of Rome.
He took steps to mitigate the financial crisis in Rome.
Julius Caesar took a number of popular measures to relieve the poor.
He was a leading Roman orator and prose.
Julius Caesar’s Military
and Political Achievements
At an early age, Caesar joined the Roman military, rapidly distinguished himself as a capable warrior and was given the civic crown for saving a life in battle. With the help of his persuasive diplomacy skills, he was given the position of governor of Spain. While in Spain, Caesar was able to end tribal warfare and establish peace in the area. Caesar’s army was devoted. He promoted soldiers based on merit rather than socioeconomic standing and exercised disciplined authority. He fought alongside his men and led them from the forefront. He could pay off his obligations, soldiers and the Roman treasury thanks to his victories in Spain. Caesar secured his appointment to Gaul after realizing the wealth gained through colonization (France and Belgium).
DID YOU KNOW?
At an early age, Caesar joined the Roman military, rapidly distinguished himself as a capable warrior and was given the civic crown for saving a life in battle.
Caesar benefited from his ability to exercise control over the Roman Senate. He received widespread public support and popularity due to his army campaigns’ successes. Caesar also won his troops’ unwavering loyalty, which provided him with the necessary force to take control. The establishment of the First Triumvirate was one of his most significant political moves. Caesar, Pompey and Crassus formed a covert partnership where they agreed to support one another in pursuing their political objectives to go beyond the controls and checks provided by the constitution. The First Triumvirate was a coalition among Julius Caesar, General Pompey and Marcus Crassus, three highly valued political figures in the Roman Republic. Together, they gained control of the Senate, and Caesar was made consulate.
Late in Life
On the Ides of March (March 15) 44 B.C.E., several senators assassinated Julius Caesar, the Roman tyrant, by stabbing him 23 times at a Senate meeting held at the Curia of Pompey in Rome. They claimed they acted out of concern for the Roman Republic because of Caesar’s unmatched concentration of power throughout his reign. Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus were in charge of the scheme, which involved at least 60 senators. Caesar’s death did not prevent the revolutionaries from failing to restore the Republic’s institutions. The civil war of the Liberators and, finally, the development of the Roman Empire were both consequences of the murder.
Why was Julius Caesar assassinated?
On the Ides of March in 44 B.C.E., a group of senators killed Julius Caesar, the Roman tyrant, as the Senate was convened at the Curia of Pompey at the Theatre of Pompey in Rome. Caesar was stabbed 23 times. The senators stated that they were acting out of concern for the Roman Republic, which they believed was being threatened by Caesar’s unparalleled consolidation of power throughout his rule. The plot, which was headed by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, involved at least 60 senators.
What was Julius Caesar known for?
With the help of bold political changes, Julius Caesar turned Rome from a republic into an empire.
When did Julius Caesar rule?
Who was Julius Caesar’s wife?
Caesar had three wives during his lifetime, Cornelia, Pompeia and Calpernia. It is important to note he also had a son with Cleopatra and also had mistresses.